Skip directly to content


  1. Gansevoort RT, Correa-Rotter R, Hemmelgarn BR et al. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk: epidemiology, mechanisms, and prevention. Lancet. 2013;382(9889): 339-352.
  2. Rivera JA, O'Hare AM, Harper GM. Update on the management of chronic kidney disease. Am Fam Physician. 2012;86(8):749-754.
  3. Cai Q, Mukku VK, Ahmad M. Coronary artery disease in patients with chronic kidney disease: a clinical update. Curr Cardiol Rev. 2013;9(4):331-339.
  4. Omran J, Al-Dadah A, Dellsperger KC. Dyslipidemia in patients with chronic and end-stage kidney disease. Cardiorenal Med. 2013;3(3):165-177.
  5. Kassimatis TI, Goldsmith DJ. Statins in chronic kidney disease and kidney transplantation. Pharmacol Res. July 1, 2014. pii: S1043-6618(14)00103-0. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2014.06.011.
  6. Deedwania PC. Statins in chronic kidney disease: cardiovascular risk and kidney function. Postgrad Med. 2014;126(1):29-36.
  7. Koren MJ, Davidson MH, Wilson DJ, Fayyad RS, Zuckerman A, Reed DP; ALLIANCE Investigators. Focused atorvastatin therapy in managed-care patients with coronary heart disease and CKD. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;53(5):741-750.
  8. Jha V, Garcia-Garcia G, Iseki K, et al. Chronic kidney disease: global dimension and perspectives. Lancet. 2013;382(9888):260-272.
  9. The National Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease. About Chronic Kidney Disease. Accessed August 10, 2014.
  10. Morrissey RP, Philip KJ, Schwarz ER. Cardiac abnormalities in Anderson-Fabry disease and Fabry's cardiomyopathy. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2011;22(1):38-44.
  11. Mac Way F, Lessard M, Lafage-Proust MH. Pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder. Joint Bone Spine. 2012;79(6):544-549.
  12. Hodgkins KS, Bobrowski AE, Lane JC, Langman CB. Clinical grand rounds: atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Am J Nephrol. 2012;35:394-400.
  13. Mundel P, Shankland SJ. Podocyte biology and response to injury. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002;13(12):3005-3015.
  14. Haneda M, Koya D, Isono M, Kikkawa R. Overview of glucose signaling in mesangial cells in diabetic nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14:1374-1382.
  15. KDIGO. KDIGO 2012 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2013;3(1):1-150. Accessed August 10, 2014.
  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Chronic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet: General Information and National Estimates on Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States, 2014. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2014. National Chronic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet. Accessed September 6, 2014.
  17. Stevens LA, Padala S, Levey AS. Advances in glomerular filtration rate-estimating equations. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2010;19(3):298-307.
  18. Delanaye P, Cavalier E, Moranne O, et al. Creatinine-or cystatin C-based equations to estimate glomerular filtration in the general population: impact on the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease. BMC Nephrol. 2013;12(14):57.
  19. Tomey MI, Winston JA. Cardiovascular pathophysiology in chronic kidney disease: opportunities to transition from disease to health. Ann Glob Health. 2014;80(1):69-76.
  20. Segura J, Campo C, Ruilope LM. Effect of proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate on cardiovascular risk in essential hypertension. Kidney International. 2004;66:S45-S49.
  21. Ruilope LM, Bakris GL. Renal function and target organ damage in hypertension. Eur Heart J. 2011;32(13):1599-1604.
  22. Dzau V. The cardiovascular continuum and renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system blockade. J Hypertens. 2005;23(suppl 1):S9-S17.
  23. Agarwal R. Hypertension in chronic kidney disease and dialysis: pathophysiology and management. Cardiol Clin. 2005;23(3):237-248.
  24. Vink EE, de Jager RL, Blankestijn PJ. Sympathetic hyperactivity in chronic kidney disease: pathophysiology and (new) treatment options. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2013;15(2):95-101.
  25. Solini A, Ferrannini E. Pathophysiology, prevention and management of chronic kidney disease in the hypertensive patient with diabetes mellitus. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011;13(4): 252-257.
  26. Keane WF, Tomassini JE, Neff DR. Lipid abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease: implications for the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2013;20(2):123-133.
  27. Levey AS, Atkins R, J Coresh J, et al. Chronic kidney disease as a global public health problem: approaches and initiatives – a position statement from Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes. Accessed August 10, 2014.
  28. NIDDK/NIH US Epidemiology of CKD: Accessed August 10, 2014.
  29. Qaseem A, Hopkins RA Jr, Sweet DE, et al, for the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Screening, monitoring, and treatment of stage 1 to 3 chronic kidney disease: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(12):835-847.
  30. McClellan AC, Plantinga L, McClellan WM. Epidemiology, geography and chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2012 May;21(3):323-328.
  31. Guessous I, McClellan W, Vupputuri S, Wasse H. Low documentation of chronic kidney diseas among high-risk patients in a managed care population: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Nephrology. 2009;10:25.
  32. Zhang Q-L, Rothenbacher D. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in population-based studies: Systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:117.
  33. Ortiz A, Covic A, Fliser D, et al, Board of the EURECA-m Working Group of ERA-EDTA. Epidemiology, contributors to, and clinical trials of mortality risk in chronic kidney failure. Lancet. 2014;383(9931):1831-1843.
  34. White S, Chadban SJ, Jan S, Chapmanc JR, Cassa A. How can we achieve global equity in provision of renal replacement therapy? Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:229-237.
  35. Anand S, Bitton A, Gaziano T. The gap between estimated incidence of end-stage renal disease and use of therapy. PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e72860.
  36. NICE Guidelines. Chronic kidney disease: early identification and management of chronic kidney disease in adults in primary and secondary care. Recommendations. Accessed September 6, 2014.  
  37. National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease: Evaluation, Classification and Stratification. Am J Kidney Dis.2002;39:S1-S266(suppl 1). Accessed September 6, 2014.
  38. Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Blood pressure lowering and major cardiovascular events in people with and without chronic kidney disease: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2013;347:f5680.
  39. Ruggenenti P, Fassi A, Ilieva AP, et al. Preventing microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(19):1941-1951.
  40. Haller H, Ito S, Izzo JL Jr, Olmesartan for the delay or prevention of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:907-917.
  41. Parving HH, Lehnert H, Bröchner-Mortensen J, et al. The effect of irbesartan on the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(12):870-878.
  42. Dahlöf B, Devereux RB, Kjeldsen SE, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised tria against atenolol. Lancet. 2002;359(9311):995-1003.
  43. Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Clarke WR, et al. Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(12):851-860.
  44. Brenner BM1, Cooper ME, de Zeeuw D, et al. Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(12):861- 869.
  45. Cerezo C, Ruilope LM, Segura J, et al. Microalbuminuria breakthrough under chronic reninangiotensin-aldosterone system suppression. J Hypertens. 2012;30(1):204-209.
  46. ONTARGET Investigators, Yusuf S, Teo KK, Pogue J, et al. Telmisartan, ramipril, or both in patients at high risk for vascular events. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(15):1547-1559.
  47. Jafar TH, Stark PC, Schmid CH, et al; AIPRD Study Group. Progression of chronic kidney disease: the role of blood pressure control, proteinuria, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition: a patient-level meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139(4):244-252.
  48. Peterson JC, Adler S, Burkart JM, et al. Blood pressure control, proteinuria, and the progression of renal disease. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. Ann Intern Med. 1995;123(10):754-762.
  49. Czernichow S, Zanchetti A, Turnbull F, et al, Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. J Hypertens. 2011;29(1):4-16.
  50. Upadhyay A, Earley A, Haynes SM, Uhlig K. Systematic review: blood pressure target in chronic kidney disease and proteinuria as an effect modifier. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154(8):541-548.
  51. Tonelli M, Wanner C; Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Lipid Guideline Development Work Group Members. Lipid management in chronic kidney disease: synopsis of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2013 clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160(3):182.
  52. Baigent C, Landray MJ, Reith C, et al, SHARP Investigators. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;377:2181-2192.
  53. Palmer SC, Craig JC, Navaneethan SD, Tonelli M, Pellegrini F, Strippoli GF. Benefits and harms of statin therapy for persons with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157:263-275.
  54. Colhoun HM, Betteridge DJ, Durrington PN, et al; CARDS Investigators. Effects of atorvastatin on kidney outcomes and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes: an analysis from the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS). Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;54:810-819.
  55. Ridker PM, MacFadyen J, Cressman M, et al. Efficacy of rosuvastatin among men and women with moderate chronic kidney disease and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: a secondary analysis from the JUPITER (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention-an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55:1266-1273.
  56. Asselbergs FW, Diercks GF, Hillege HL, et al. Effects of fosinopril and pravastatin on cardiovascular events in subjects with microalbuminuria. Circulation. 2004;110:2809-2816.
  57. Lemos PA, Serruys PW, de Feyter P, et al. Long-term fluvastatin reduces the hazardous effect o renal impairment on four-year atherosclerotic outcomes (a LIPS substudy). Am J Cardiol. 2005;95:445-451.
  58. Kendrick J, Shlipak MG, Targher G, et al. Effect of lovastatin on primary prevention of cardiovascular events in mild CKD and kidney function loss: a post hoc analysis of the Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010;55:42-49.
  59. Chonchol M, Cook T, Kjekshus J, et al. Simvastatin for secondary prevention of all-cause mortality and major coronary events in patients with mild chronic renal insufficiency. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;49:373-382.
  60. Nakamura H, Mizuno K, Ohashi Y, et al. Pravastatin and cardiovascular risk in moderate chronic kidney disease. Atherosclerosis. 2009;206:512-517.
  61. Tonelli M, Moye L, Sacks FM, et al. Pravastatin for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in persons with mild chronic renal insufficiency. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138:98-104.
  62. de Zeeuw D, Anzalone DA, Cain VA, et al. Renal effects of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin in patients with diabetes who have progressive renal disease (PLANET I): a randomised clinical trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015 Mar;3(3):181-190.
  63. NICE clinical guideline CG181. Lipid modification Accessed August 10, 2014.
  64. National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines on Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents in Chronic Kidney Disease. Guideline 7. Accessed August 10, 2014.
  65. National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Managing Dyslipidemias in Chronic CKD. Guideline 4. Accessed August 4, 2014.
  66. 2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. J Hypertens. 2013,31:1281-1357.
  67. James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014;311(5):507-520.
  68. American Diabetes Association (ADA) 2014. Guidelines Summary Recommendations from National Diabetes Education Initiative (NDEI). Accessed August 14, 2014.
  69. Jellinger PS, Smith DA, Mehta AE, Ganda O, Handelsman Y, Rodbard HW, Shepherd MD, Seibel JA; AACE Task Force for Management of Dyslipidemia and Prevention of Atherosclerosis. Endocr Pract. 2012;18 Suppl 1:1-78.